East India Company which ruled over a region
It is the last year of the sixteenth century. As an industrial hub producing a quarter of the world’s products, India spends its gold. The Mughal emperor Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar is the ruler and the richest man in the world. In the civil war-torn agricultural country of Britain, only 3% of the world’s products are produced. Here is the government of Queen Elizabeth I. Europe’s major powers, Portugal and Spain, have overtaken Britain in trade. In the form of traders, British pirates are content to return their merchant ships.
Expeditions that British businessman Ralph Fitch has reported on India’s prosperity while traveling on business trips to the Indian Ocean, Mesopotamia, the Persian Gulf and Southeast Asia. His journey is so long that his will has been executed before he returned to Britain.
The Levant Company has made two unsuccessful attempts to obtain spices from the East. Fitch’s information is another campaign that paves the way for more than 200 influential and business professionals in the UK, including Sergei Lancaster.
He obtained a monopoly on trade in East Asia from the Queen on 31 December 1600 under a new company. There are many names of this company but it is known as East India Company.
After traveling elsewhere in the early years, in August 1608, Captain William Hawkins anchored his ship Hector at the Indian port of Surat (present-day Indian Gujarat) and announced the arrival of the East India Company here.
Britain’s trade rivals in the Indian Ocean were already Dutch and Portuguese. No one would have guessed then that this company would have to rule directly over the country’s richest country, about 20 times its size, and about a quarter of its population.
By then, King Akbar was dead. In those days, only the Ming dynasty of China could match King Akbar.
According to the selected al-Labab, Khafi Khan Nizam-ul-Mulk, Akbar in his inheritance had five thousand elephants, twelve thousand horses, one thousand leopards, ten crore rupees, one hundred tolas to five hundred tolas of great nobles, two hundred better minds. He left behind an undisclosed amount of gold, three hundred and seventy manats of silver, one manat of jewelery worth Rs. 30 million.
Akbar’s son Saleem, Nooruddin, had ascended the throne with the title of Jahangir. Reforms in the regime abolished the penalties for cutting off ears, noses and hands, the use of alcohol and other narcotics (for the public) and the slaughter of animals on special days, and the removal of many illegal taxes.
Roads, wells and inns were being built. Inheritance laws were strictly enforced and free treatment was ordered in government hospitals in every city. A chain of justice was hung from the wall of the palace to address the grievances.
According to world-renowned historian William Dale Rimple, Hawkins soon realized that with an army of four million Mughals, there was no room for war as there was in Europe at that time. So there was a need for cooperation, with the permission of the Mughal emperor. Hawkins arrived in the Mughal capital, Agra, in one year as an Afghan dignitary.
Hawkins, a semi-literate, failed to win the approval of the business community. Sir Thomas Rowe, Member of Parliament and Ambassador, was then sent as the Royal Envoy. In 1615, the Mughals reached the capital Agra. They presented the king with valuable gifts, including hounds and their favorite wine.
According to Roe, whenever there was talk, the kings would take him to horses, artefacts and wine instead of trade. Barely succeeded after all three years of persuasion.
When Jahangir Signed over a trade agreement.
Jahangir signed a trade agreement with the East India Company. Under the agreement, the company and all UK merchants were allowed to use every port on the subcontinent and every location for buying and selling. In return, European products were promised to India, but then what was made there. It was decided that whatever antiques and gifts the company’s ships would bring to the palace would be gladly accepted.
The merchants of the company bought yarn, indigo, potassium nitrate and tea from India to the liking of the Mughals, sold them abroad at high prices and made good profits. The company’s capitalism was based on mercantile capitalism. The company paid for everything it bought in the form of silver, which it obtained by selling slaves in the islands, Spain and the United States, from 1621 to 1843.
In 1670, British King Charles II allowed the East India Company to fight abroad and establish colonies. The British Army’s armed forces first fought Portuguese, Dutch and French rivals in India and won most of the wars. Gradually he set foot on the coast of Bengal.
But the Mughals were fought only once in the seventeenth century.
In 1681, his children complained to Sir Child, the director of the company, that the officials of Nawab Shaista Khan, the nephew of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir in Bengal, were harassing him in tax and other matters. Child wrote a letter of military assistance to his king. So in 1686 a large fleet sailed from London to Bengal with nineteen warships, two hundred cannons and six hundred soldiers aboard. The Mughal emperor’s army was also ready, so the Mughals were victorious in the war.
In 1695, Henry Avery, a British pirate, looted Aurangzeb’s treasured ships ‘Fateh Muhammad’ and Ganj Sawai. The treasure was worth between six and seven million British pounds.
Sir Thomas Rowe’s Tireless Diplomatic Struggle Grants Free Trade to Surat East India Company
Historian William Dale Rimple says that the British soldiers were killed by the Mughal army like flies and then the company’s five factories in Bengal were destroyed and all the British were driven out of Bengal.
The Surat factory was closed while Bombay was blocked. Company employees were chained around the city and subjected to severe defamation like thieves and murderers. The company had no choice but to apologize and return to their factories as beggars at the king’s court.
The British Crown officially condemned Henry Avery and apologized to the Mughal emperor. Aurangzeb Alamgir pardoned the company in 1690.
In the late seventeenth century, the East India Company bought silk and sugar utensils from China. The goods had to be paid in silver because they did not have any products that China needed. The solution was to cultivate poppy in Bengal and set up factories in Bihar to manufacture opium and smuggle it to China.
Until then, opium was rarely used in China. The East India Company increased the use of opium among the people through Chinese agents. The company also bought silk and sugar utensils from the opium trade and made a profit.When the Chinese refused to buy opium, the British ship ‘Nemesis’ wrecked the port of Canton.
When the Chinese government tried to stop the opium trade and the opium that came to China was destroyed, there were many wars between China and Britain. In which China was defeated and Britain made many agreements with China on degrading terms. Received compensation for lost opium.
Occupied its ports. The British occupation of Hong Kong was one such link. When the Chinese government wrote a letter to Queen Victoria in protest asking her to help stop the opium trade, the Chinese government did not respond.
After the death of King Aurangzeb in 1707, people of different regions lined up against each other. The company took advantage to build an army of millions of locals, which, thanks to the Industrial Revolution in Europe, also took advantage of war technology. This small but effective army defeated the large armies of Mughals, Marhats, Sikhs and local Nawabs armed with old technology one by one.
In 1756, Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah became the ruler of the richest semi-autonomous state of Bengal in India. Fifty percent of the revenue of the Mughal government came from this state. Bengal was a major center of textile and shipbuilding not only in India but all over the world. The people of the area earned a good living by exporting silk, cotton garments, steel, potassium nitrate and agricultural and industrial goods.
The company began expanding its forts in Calcutta and increasing the number of its troops. Nawab sent a message to the company not to expand its scope. Following the order, the Nawab attacked Calcutta and captured the British forts. The British prisoners were imprisoned in the basement of Fort William.
The East India Company recruited Mir Jaffer, a commander in the Nawab’s army, who had a secret desire to become ruler. On 23 June 1757, a battle took place at Plassey between the Company and the Nawab’s forces. Due to the abundance of cannons and the betrayal of Mir Jafar, the British were victorious and Mir Jafar was enthroned on the throne of Bengal.
The British now began to pay tribute to Mir Jafar. Thus began the era of looting in India. When the treasury was empty, Mir Jafar enlisted the help of the Dutch army to chase the company. After the conquest in 1759 and again in 1764, the Company took over the administration of Bengal. With the imposition of new taxes, they started buying Bengali goods cheaply and selling them abroad at high prices.
Scholar Wajahat Masood writes that in the first half of the eighteenth century, British merchants used to buy cotton and rice from Indians in exchange for silver coins. After the Battle of Plassey, the East India Company established a monopoly on trade with India through the system of finance and tariffs.
The method was that about one-third of the revenue collected from Indians was spent on the purchase of Indian products. It is as if Indians were forced to sell their products for one-third of what they paid in terms of revenue.
Historian, critic and journalist Bari Alig writes in his book Government of the Company: ‘Traders from all over the world traded with India. In the civilized world, the use of muslin from Dhaka and Murshidabad was a testament to greatness and superiority. In every country in Europe, the muslin and chicken of these two cities were very popular.
The textile industry was superior to other industries in India. Cotton and woolen cloth, shawls, muslin and splinters were exported from India.
Ahmedabad was famous all over the world for its silk, nightmares and zirconia. In the eighteenth century, these garments were in such high demand in England that the government had to pay heavy taxes to stop them.
Apart from textile weaving, India had also made great strides in iron work. Iron goods were also shipped out of India. During the reign of Mughal King Aurangzeb, iron anchors were made for ships in Multan. Bengal had made great strides in shipbuilding.
In the words of an Englishman: ‘It is difficult for ordinary Englishmen to understand that Indian life was once enjoyable before our government. What facilities were available for business and courageous people? I am convinced that before the arrival of the British, business Indians lived a very comfortable life.
During the reign of Aurangzeb, the goods sent out of Surat and Ahmedabad, received from him thirteen lakh and one hundred and three lakh rupees through annual tolls.
The East India Company was a trading company but had an army of two and a half million soldiers. Where trade was not profitable, the military would make it possible. The company’s army occupied most of India in the next fifty years. In these areas the company’s tax-paying local rulers began to rule. Apparently power was in the hands of the local rulers, but most of the revenue of each state went to the British coffers. The people were compelled.
In August 1765, the East India Company defeated the Mughal emperor Shah Alam. Lord Clive obtained from him the ‘civil’ of the eastern provinces of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, that is, the right to collect taxes and control the people, in exchange for Rs. After that the company became the owner of India.
According to the historian Syed Hassan Riaz, it was common at that time: ‘God’s people, the king’s country and the ruling company Bahadur.’
In the last Mughal period, the money collected by the rulers by squeezing the blood of their subjects was sacrificed to the luxuries of the royal family. The Mughal princes who were called sultans were known for their laziness, simplicity, inaction, cowardice and luxury.
Historian Dr. Mubarak Ali wrote in his last period Mughal India that in the year 1848, the number of useless sultans of this cloth who used to give luxury in dance and anthem festivals reached 2104. Shah Alam’s son Akbar was no less sexually obsessed than his father. At the age of eighteen, he was the husband of eighteen wives.
In the eighteenth century, the southern regions were affected by famine from 1769 to 1773, from Bihar to Bengal. An estimated 10 million people died in the famine. One-third of the population died of starvation, according to a report by Governor-General Warren Hastings.
Aside from the weather conditions, on the one hand, the heavy taxes of the company had made the rural population poor. According to Nobel Prize-winning economist Amartya Sen, the famine in Bengal was not man-made.
In disputes, the East India Company rented its military to local rulers. But these military expenditures soon impoverished him and he lost his rule. Thus the company would increase its holdings.
The company also benefited from human tragedy. In the famine of Bengal, rice, which was 120 sacks for one rupee, became only three sacks for one rupee. A junior officer made a profit of ہزار 60,000.
During the 120 years of the East India Company, there were 34 famines. During the Mughal rule, taxes were reduced in times of famine, but the East India Company increased taxes during times of famine. People started selling their children for bread.
Sheikh Din Muhammad, an employee of the East India Company, writes in his travelogue, “(Around 1780) when our forces were advancing, we saw many Hindu pilgrims going to Sita Kund.” In 15 days we reached Bhagalpur from Mongir. We set up camp outside the city. The city was industrially important and had an army to protect its trade. We stayed here for four or five days. We found out that Captain Brooke of the East India Company, who was the head of five companies of soldiers, was also staying nearby. He occasionally encounters mountain tribesmen. These hill people lived on the hills between Bhagalpur and Raj Mahal and harassed passersby. Captain Brooke captured a large number of them and made them a model. Some were publicly flogged, and some were hanged in such a way that they could be seen clearly from the mountains.
From here we proceeded and we saw their bodies hanging in the hills at prominent places every half mile. We passed through Sukli Garhi and Talia Garhi and reached Raj Mahal where we stayed for a few days. Our army was very large but in the rear the merchants were attacked by some other hills. Our guards chased them, killed many and captured thirty or forty mountain people. The next morning, when the townspeople went to the hills as usual to buy fodder for elephants, horses and oxen and firewood, the hills attacked them. Seven or eight civilians were killed. The mountain also took with him three elephants, several camels, horses and oxen. In retaliation, our artillery killed many hillsmen who were fighting with bows and arrows and captured two hundred hills. His sword weighed 15 pounds and was now our victory trophy. At the behest of Colonel Grant, he inflicted severe torture on these hills went. Some had their noses and ears cut off. Some were hanged. After that we continued our march towards Calcutta.
Only Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Mysore, with the technical support of France, put up a real resistance to the company and defeated the company in two wars. But Tipu Sultan was also subdued along with other rulers of India. When Lord Wellesley, the Governor-General of the Company, was informed of Tipu’s death in 1799, he raised his glass in the air and said, “Today I am celebrating the body of India.”
Under Lord Wellesley, the company began to suffer financial difficulties despite its military victories. His debt exceeded 30 million pounds. The company’s director wrote to the government about Wellesley’s wasteful spending and recalled him to the UK.
In 1813, the British Parliament ended the East India Company’s monopoly on trade in India and allowed other British companies to do business and open offices.
The British public asked Thomas Monroe in 1813, who was made governor of Madras in 1820, why British-made garments were no longer sold in India after the Industrial Revolution, to which he replied that Indian garments were far better. Are of quality.
But then the centuries-old local textile industry was destroyed to popularize British-made cloth, bringing Britain’s exports from 2.5 million pounds in 1815 to 4.8 million pounds in 1822.
The population of Dhaka, a major textile center, fell from 1.5 million to only 20,000. Governor General William Bentinck wrote in his 1834 report that there was no precedent for such a situation in the history of economics. The land of India has turned white with the bones of Indian weavers.
Farmers’ income tax was reduced to 66% from 40% during the Mughal period. Taxes were also levied on everyday items, including salt. This halved the consumption of salt. Low salt consumption severely affected the health of the poor and increased the number of deaths due to cholera and heatstroke.
Henry George Tucker, a director of the East India Company, wrote in 1823 that India had been reduced from an industrial country to an agricultural country so that British goods could be sold in India. In 1833, the British Parliament passed a law depriving the East India Company of its right to trade and transforming it into a governing corporation.
William Dale Rimple writes in his book The Anarchy, The Relentless Rise of the East India Company that it is a unique example of history in which a private company in the middle of the eighteenth century An entire nation of millions was enslaved.
The company built roads, built bridges, built inns, ran trains, but critics say the projects provided transportation for the public, but the real purpose was to promote the trade in cotton, silk, opium, sugar and spices.
Under the Act of 1835, funds were allocated for the promotion of the English language and literature. During the War of Independence (Rebellion according to the company) of 1857, the company crushed thousands of people by hanging and killing them in the markets and on the streets.
It was the largest massacre in British colonial history.
After the War of Independence, on November 1 of the following year, Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom took over the management of the Company by removing its powers and merging the Company’s army with the British Army and ending its Navy.
According to Lord Macaulay, the company was involved in trade and politics from day one, but the company’s last breaths lasted until 1874. In the January 2 issue of the British newspaper The Times of the same year, he wrote: “He has done something in the history of mankind that no other company has tried or will be able to do in the years to come.”
India was now under the direct control of the British Crown.